The abstract reveals the problems of preserving the national monuments of Kyiv.

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The abstract reveals the problems of preserving the national monuments of Kyiv.

The abstract reveals the problems of preserving the national monuments of Kyiv.

In 1927, while lecturing in a cold room, he contracted pneumonia, which led to his death. He was buried in St. Petersburg near the graves of I. Turgenev, I. Goncharov, M. Saltykov-Shchedrin. The inscription on the grave is preserved: "I thought, felt, worked."

Much has been written about Anatoly Koni, all note his excellent oratory, originality of speeches, lack of template. He is rightly considered the first among court speakers "magician of the word", as he was called by contemporaries, t such an assessment is undeniable.

During 1966-1969 pp. in Moscow, the publishing house "Legal Literature" published a collection of works by A. Koni in eight volumes. His work "Judicial Speeches", first published in 1888 and which contains indictments, farewell speeches to the jury, cassation opinions, has survived several editions. A. Connie left a lot of useful advice and recommendations to court rhetoricians. He demanded from the prosecutor and the lawyer logic, deep argumentation, objective and reasonable analysis of evidence.

Contemporaries noted that there was hardly a prosecutor more dangerous, stable and strong due to tact and sense of proportion, lack of tension and one-sidedness than A. Kony. He always studied deeply and knew the case materials well, although he rarely made statements. The strength of A. Koni’s oratory was also manifested in the fact that he was able to show not only the event itself, but also the conditions that led to it. In Konya, the gift of psychological analysis was combined with the gift of the artist of the word. His speech was rich in images, comparisons, generalizations, apt remarks. All this gave her the truth of life, captivated the audience.

Mykola Karabchevsky (1851-1925). He was born in the Kherson province. After graduating (with a silver medal) from the Nikolaev Real Gymnasium, he entered the Faculty of Law of St. Petersburg University, which in 1874 he successfully graduated with a degree in law.

Having not received the certificate of trustworthiness required for work in the institutions of the Ministry of Justice, Mykola Karabchevsky enters the bar of the St. Petersburg Judicial Chamber. He quickly gained popularity as one of the best defenders.

He successfully acted in many "high-profile" trials: about quartermaster abuses during the Russo-Turkish war (the criminal case was considered by the special presence of the St. Petersburg Military District Court); in defense of Olga Palem, who was accused of killing student Dovnar; the Scythian brothers; multan votyaks, in the fate of which his compatriot, writer V. Korolenko took an active part; his speech in the case of the shipwreck "Vladimir" and defense speeches on political matters became widely known.

Mykola Karabchevsky’s defense speeches are convincing, confident, and passionate. He always studied in detail the materials of the preliminary investigation, was quite active in the trial. He was able to show the mistakes and shortcomings of the opposite side.

In 1894, M. Karabchevsky delivered a famous speech in the case of Sazonov, who was accused of assassinating the Minister of the Interior Pleve. Extremely excited, the speaker declared: “Judges! Apparently, the bomb dropped by Sazonov was not filled with dynamite, but with the anger of the people! ”Here he is interrupted by the chairman:" This is sedition. " But M. Karabchevsky quickly orientated himself and replied: "That’s what Sazonov thought."

Mykola Karabchevsky’s interests were extremely multifaceted: he was actively involved in science, journalism, criticism, fiction and poetry. His literary works are published in the collection "Raised Curtain". Two fundamental works were published in separate editions: Around Justice (St. Petersburg, 1902) and Speeches (Moscow, 1916). Edited the magazine "Lawyer".

Mykola Platonovych died abroad in exile.

Mykola Kholeva (1858-1899). He was born in Kerch, Tavriya province. After graduating from the local classical gymnasium, he entered the law faculty of St. Petersburg University. From 1881 p. works in the bar at the St. Petersburg Judicial Chamber.

A characteristic feature of Holeva as a lawyer is a rare honesty and exceptional diligence. He always paid much attention to the detailed study of the case, all its circumstances. His speeches are the result of a great deal of preliminary work and thorough preparation for the process. There were no details for the lawyer in the circumstances of the case. Any fact – significant or minor – did not go unnoticed. Speeches are clear, consistent. Until he finished a comprehensive consideration of one issue, he did not switch his attention to something else.

The speech in Maksymenko’s case very well reflects the peculiarities of Mykola Kholeva’s oratory. It smoothly and consistently covers all the events of the case. The analysis of the evidence is exhaustive and comprehensive. Very thorough analysis of expert opinions. In the defense speech there are no deviations on issues not related to the case. In other speeches, for example in the case of the shipwreck "Vladimir", successfully used literary and artistic description of individual events, figurative comparisons.

Mykola Yosypovych was engaged in literary work. He participated in the publication of magazines and newspapers, worked as secretary of the commission for the collection of legal customs at the ethnographic department of the Geographical Society.

Mykola Krylenko (1885-1938). He was born in the village of Bekhgeyevo, Smolensk region (Russia) in the family of a political exile from Ukraine. In 1914 he graduated from the Law Faculty of Kharkiv University. In 1917 he was the Supreme Commander-in-Chief and People’s Commissar for Military Affairs. Since 1918 he has been working in the judiciary, organizing judicial and prosecutorial bodies. Later – Chairman of the Supreme Tribunal at the Central Executive Committee, Prosecutor of the Russian Federation. People’s Commissar of Justice of the USSR, state prosecutor for the largest political trials, head of the Department of Criminal Law of the Moscow Institute of Soviet Law.

Mykola Krylenko was an example of a skilful and deep combination of legal and psychological analysis of the circumstances of the case. He skillfully mastered all the techniques of controversy, paid special attention to the social and political significance of the case. The writer L. Sheinin wrote about Krylenko that he was an "unforgettable speaker."

Roman Rudenko (1907-1981). He was born in the town of Nosivka, Chernihiv Province. He graduated from the Moscow Law School and the Higher Law Courses at the All-Union Law Academy in 1941. In 1944— 1953 pp. – Prosecutor of the USSR, and since 1953 p. – Prosecutor General of the USSR. Honorary Doctor of Laws, University. Humboldt (1960), University of Prague (1966).

He made indictments at well-known international trials: in the case of the main German war criminals in Nuremberg; the case of American spy pilot F. Powers.

Roman Rudenko delivered his speeches vividly, strongly, and deeply analyzed the international situation and the political significance of the cases under consideration. He was objective not only in the investigation of the circumstances of the case, but also in the identity of the defendant. His closing remarks as the main speaker at the Nuremberg Trials were an event of great political significance. The second part of the book presents the text of this speech.


Cultural treasures of Kyiv: death and restoration

The abstract reveals the problems of preserving the national monuments of Kyiv. The difficult way of death and restoration of invaluable cultural treasures is traced

All the best is broken (the fate of millennial Kyiv). The year 1936 was marked by the unheard of destruction of artistic and historical monuments in Kyiv in modern world history. This formula is certainly accurate, because for a long time nowhere in the world (especially, deliberately and not forced by any "extraordinary" circumstances) have not destroyed the primary architectural works of such a distant era as the twelfth century. And in Kyiv, in conditions of complete peace, without the slightest influence of "invincible force", the demolition of such monuments began, moreover, on a mass scale.

There was no other platform for the government building in Kyiv than the piece of land where precious witnesses of the distant Russian past stood untouched in the storms of eight centuries. And so, as the detractors of their own homeland enthusiastically report, "on the steep bank of the Dnieper, on the territory of the former St. Michael’s Monastery and the Church of the Three Saints, a six-story building of the People’s Commissar of the USSR is being built. "

How much fuss was made at one time about the death that threatened the Council of Reims. The threat did not materialize, and the cathedral was rebuilt. The death of the Cathedral of St. Michael’s Monastery in Kyiv is a fait accompli. Meanwhile, it is necessary to fully establish the truth that among the phenomena of artistic culture, the Cathedral of St. Michael’s Monastery is no less significant in its kind than its younger predecessor – Reims Cathedral. Each of them expresses its own and great truth of artistic speculation and creativity. And if so, the builders of the anecdotal ("six-story": they found something to brag about) house of the People’s Commissar of the USSR in Kyiv are the destroyers of the most significant treasures of their people.

The Cathedral of St. Michael’s Monastery was built, as is known, in 1108. Preserved until the XX century, Russian architectural monuments of this age can be counted on the fingers. Kyiv (and not only Kyiv) grief- "builders" cut off these fingers one after another. Boplan, a well-known descriptor of the country in the first half of the seventeenth century, said of its capital: "Of all the temples of Kiev, only two remain in memory (pour memoire), – Sophia and St. Michael; the rest lie in ruins. " Of these two historic buildings, preserved "in memory" of descendants, one has now disappeared from the face of the earth, to please no one and why. There is no serious review of the Russian artistic past, which would not mention the Cathedral of St. Michael’s Monastery.

The one-bath and six-column St. Michael’s Cathedral in its original form has overgrown with aisles and outbuildings during its long life. From one-bath it became seven-bath4. But this did not diminish its architectural beauty and expressiveness. One might even think that later additions increased its picturesqueness. This was vividly felt by the spectator, who had the opportunity to admire the cathedral in the estate of the former St. Michael’s Monastery.

This impression is now able to make any good photo of the cathedral. M. Sychov and F. Ernst rightly called this building "fabulously picturesque". And even the restorer V. Frolov, sent to Kyiv at a time when the cathedral of St. Michael’s Monastery was doomed to destruction, could not refrain from calling it "a beautiful monument of Russian architecture of the XII century."

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